ik1xpv hamradio software & hardware

CNC laser modifications

The starting point is the CNC in figure:


The manual refers to it as CNC2-Axis-4030B and the laser module power is declared 2500 mW.


After the kit assembly I started testing operation.  I was a little disappointed as I was not able to cut poplar playwood of 3mm thickness.
I had some better result with the modification here following.



The light from the laser module is dangerous and may permanently damage the eyes of the user or persons close to it.

- Operate the unit only when everybody is equipped with protective glasses.

When the machine is power on the laser is dangerous also when is stopped as for a software or hardware fault it could light the laser.

- Keep the laser machine power off when not needed.

The laser “burns” the target material to engrave or cut it. Some setting of engraving or cutting can cause fires.

- Operate the laser with an operator ready to stop it and extinguish eventually fire.

During cutting of material some smoke is generated. Some material may generate poison fume that are dangerous.

- Use the machine at open air or well ventilated room.

I prefer to engrave and cut just natural soft wood. Wood is easy to take fire, pay attention.

- Remember that you are responsible for the safety of your actions.



I made a table for the CNC unit using three IKEA LACK table and some aluminum profile.
Here after some pictures:


A sheet of iron 0.6 mm thick protects the IKEA LACK table surface. Magnets are used to fix the target to the table and to keep protection panels in place. The front panel has an acrylic orange transparent window to monitor the laser operation, nevertheless use always protection glasses too.
I plan to add air blower to ventilate the cabinet.



The laser module has adjustable focus deep moving the lens into a 9mm threated tube. The lens module theads movement is contrasted by a spring.

The lens mount of the 2500mW laser module showed some slack. In addition, the lens vibrates during normal operation of the laser module.

I modified the lens module to a fixed one inserting some spacer (2.5 mm thick in my case) and screwing the lens to the spacer.




 The spacer thickness defines the focal length. A higher focus distance causes a wider focus spot size and a wider depth of focus.


The distance between the laser module aluminum profile bottom plane and the focal plane is about 67 mm in my setup. To evaluate the depth of focus I made some cuts and analyze a section of the cut:




The limit I reached is a cut of 8mm with an estimated width of 0.25 mm with speed of F100 with three or more passes.

In a second test I cut some figures using a speed of F100 and S1000 with 8 passes to obtain a clean cut on 8mm poplar plywood. Air assist is needed to get the result.




Use the lens with a fixed focus requires to adapt the height of the target plane accordingly.
I decided to modify the laser fixing to add air assist. A screw was added to the top to adjust the height of laser over the plane as described in the following.


Compressed air can be supplied from a variety of air compressors. There are many factors to consider when selecting an air source for laser material processing, noise other than the air cleanliness and oil and moisture content.
I decided to use a simple blower on the laser head. The air will flow into the laser diode aluminum profile cooling it and will be forced by a nozzle to the laser cutting area.


I carefully dismounted the laser and the electronics control board. Two blowers (12V -15mm thickness) are mounted on the top of the aluminum laser profile, while a cone nozzle is fixed al the bottom to force the air coaxial to the laser. I made test with 4, 6, 8, 10 mm air nozzle and 6 mm seems the best to me.



The base to which the laser is screwed slides on the front plexiglass plane with four flexible skids that reduce backlash according to the Z axis and a screw allows the laser position to be corrected up to 20 mm high.

The electronics that powers the laser is mounted with some spacer on the left while a DC-DC module is added on the right to power the blowers with 14.5V instead of 12V nominal, it increases the air flow a little bit.



I wired the module 12V power with bigger wires to decrease the voltage drop. The switching regulator in the laser power control should compensate the thinner wires drop, nevertheless it seems to me that it improves the laser performance.

You can find my 3D files in https://www.thingiverse.com/thing:4204645

The design is specific for the CNC2-Axis-4030B model, nevertheless ideas can be improved and generalized.




CNC Xaxis carriage tension adjust:  https://www.thingiverse.com/thing:4188039



CNC belt tensor: https://www.thingiverse.com/thing:4188852



BBRF103 Some measurements

In the construction of BBRF103 the evaluation kit of Cypress for the FX3 is used as it is and the ADC printed circuit board is realized with 2 layers as a compromise to reduce the cost of realization.

I try to evaluate now with homemade measurements how close the performance is and how good it is.

Let's start with a few readings from the technical data sheet of the LTC2217 (https://www.analog.com/media/en/technical-documentation/data-sheets/2217f.pdf )

"(pag 1) ...The LTC2217 includes 81.3dBFS Noise Floor and 100dB spurious free dynamic range (SFDR)

(pag 24) … Digital Output Randomizer
Interference from the ADC digital outputs is sometimes unavoidable. Interference from the digital outputs may be from capacitive or inductive coupling, or coupling through the ground plane. Even a tiny coupling factor can result in discernible unwanted tones in the ADC output spectrum.
By randomizing the digital output before it is transmitted off chip, these unwanted tones can be randomized, trading a slight increase in the noise floor for a large reduction in unwanted tone amplitude.
The digital output is “Randomized” by applying an exclusive-OR logic operation between the LSB and all other data output bits. To decode, the reverse operation is applied; that is, an exclusive-OR operation is applied between the LSB and all other bits. The LSB, OF and CLKOUT output are not affected. The output Randomizer function is active when the RAND pin is high.


(pag 25)... Internal Dither
The LTC2217 is a 16-bit ADC with a very linear transfer function; however, at low input levels even slight imperfections in the transfer function will result in unwanted tones.
Small errors in the transfer function are usually a result of ADC element mismatches. An optional internal dither mode can be enabled to randomize the input location on the ADC transfer curve, resulting in improved SFDR for low signal levels.
As shown in Figure 15, the output of the sample-and-hold amplifier is summed with the output of a dither DAC. The dither DAC is driven by a long sequence pseudo-random number generator; the random number fed to the dither DAC is also subtracted from the ADC result. If the dither DAC is precisely calibrated to the ADC, very little of the dither signal will be seen at the output. The dither signal that does leak through will appear as white noise. The dither DAC is calibrated to result in typically less than 0.5dB elevation in the noise floor of the ADC as compared to the noise floor with dither off, when a suitable input termination is provided (see Demo Board schematic DC996B).



I made a sinusoidal generator using an old 10MHz TCXO followed by a ladder quartz filter made with cheap 10MHz quartz.

I calibrated the TCXO at 9.9981 MHz to pass through the quartz filter.
Before the filter, an SBF5089Z amplifier allows to obtain after the filter a level of +2dBm on 50 Ohm.
Finally, a series of resistive attenuators allows you to adjust the output level.
The aim is to obtain a generator with good dynamics and low noise. The result has 2nd and 3rd harmonic level at -50dB.

Here are a few measures

BBRF103 HF antenna is connected to the attenuator output.
BBRF103 control panel allows to activate dither and randomize.


Hereafter the level is -1dBFS, DITH and RAND are active.


High resolution image link


Hereafter the same -1dBFS level, DITH and RAND are OFF


High resolution image link

With strong and stationary signals the interference of the data bus is evident and the use of dither and randomize is effective.
Referring to the ADC datasheet with reference to these approximate measurements, it seems to me that the current layout of the 2-layer PCB and the adc databus, which also continues in the evaluation PCB of the FX3, worsen the spurious performance by 10-15 dB compared to the optimal layout of the PCB.

It would be possible to realize a single multilayer PCB including FX3 and ADC with better performances following the datasheet's layout indications.


BBRF103 Construction notes

These days I assembled a second prototype of BBRF103 receiver.  Here are some notes. 

Power supply

I made a different power harness. The purpose is to allow the circuit to be powered by the USB cable with VBUS or via a separate 5Volt power connector.

So far in the diagrams of BBRF103 the input of the 5V power supply to the PCB is taken from the VBUS of CYUSB3KIT-003.

I noticed on my two prototypes some problem related to the intervention of the protection circuit (U11 sheet 2 of 8, CYUSB3KIT scheme) on the Cypress plate and caused by the current increase required in some phases of power-up of the PCB BBRF103 and R820T2 use.

I modified the input of the 5Volt and connected it upstream of the protection circuit using the J3 jumper as a connector.

The scheme is as follows:



The current consumption of complete BBRF103 using Tuner R820T2 is about 530mA at 5Vdc.


From left to right

- 5Volt dc external input (optional)

- latched pushbutton VBUS / extenal 5V

- USB3 connector

- ON / OFF


Shielding box

The box used is made of aluminum, it has dimensions 100x76x35mm, currently at Banggood it is available only in a golden color. The surface is brushed and treated with an insulating process so it is necessary to sandpaper the contact surfaces to obtain an electrical contact when it closes.

In the grooves on the long sides I inserted after scratching the rail a strip of Desoldering Copper Wick as a contact gasket.


Heat dissipation

The ADC LTC2217 and the tuner R820T dissipate more than one Watt in heat. To keep the temperature of the chips lower, I tried two passive aluminium heat sinks that lead the heat to the aluminium box, which acts as a heat sink, reducing the temperature of the chips by 20-30° C.




The radiators are fixed with some M2 nylon insulating screws and nuts. I used a slightly modified PCB from BBRF103-2 layout.

Stand alone static current test

Assembling the pcb I have tried a simple method to verify errors of power supply rails.

Each block of the circuit is powered separately through a filter inductor. So not mounting these components it is easy to measure the current absorbed by various blocks on the PCB BBRF103-2 before connecting the CYUSB3KIT-003 board.

Here is a table with the measured power consumption of three blocks in a static way.
I have not mounted FL1, FL2, FL3.
I connected a 5Volt /500mA power supply to the LDO power supply of the plate and
I measured the current at the unassembled inductors by injecting an external voltage, getting:

Block Current Measuring point
Oscillator SI5351 15-16 mA FL3 / external power supply 3.3V
Tuner R820T2 80-85 mA FL2 / external power supply 3.3V
ADC LTC2217 269-210 mA FL1 / external power supply 5V (ADC gets 3.3V via LDO)

In case, inspect the component mounting and check the welds with a microscope or lens.


Filament weight scale for Ender-3

When the filament reel of a 3D printer begins to decrease, it becomes difficult to tell whether the remaining filament in the reel will be sufficient for the next print.

A similar scale to the vehicle's fuel gauge would be needed.


Here is a weight scale that allows you to estimate how much filament remains in the printer roll and helps to predict whether it will be sufficient for the print you are about to undertake.
There are many other similar projects on the web at www.thingiverse.com and other sites dedicated to 3D printing.
The particularity of this realization is that it is housed between the support bracket of the filament roll and the 20x20 mm profile at the top of the Ender-3. The power supply is taken from the 24V rail from the nearby power supply. I added a rocker switch to the 24V input to turn off the scale when not needed, it is useless to waste even a small energy of a few watts. 

lt shows weight readings averaged over several seconds and therefore display is quite stable. Note that the force applied to the filament by the extruder generates a variation in the reading of some grams. I modified the pin that supports the roll by inserting a support with two ball bearings that allows rotation with less friction. See Thingiverse "Another Ball Bearing Filament Support Ender-3"



A printed circuit board connects the pre-assembled economic modules together:

a 5kg load cell and an ADC HX711 module - M1, http://bit.ly/2TgD3bu ;
an ESP12E module -M4 , http://bit.ly/2TVHokU or ESP12F http://bit.ly/2TSCXHz ;
a graphic OLED display - M2, http://bit.ly/2TlLhyW ;
a button - S1, http://bit.ly/2TPz4Tx (the plastic cap is not used) ;
a power DC-DC 24V to 3V3 module -M3, http://bit.ly/2TqkHoI
a rocker switch, http://ebay.to/2uFnEYn ;


Directly on the printed circuit board there are few filter capacitors and some resistors.
A programming connector for the ESP-12 is made with a strip of aligned pads and is also used in the firmware development phase. In the development phase I soldered a female strip connector tilted inwards to easily connect the serial interface and programming switches.
The power supply wire added to the 24V is a double insulated plastic cable, since it runs outside the profile is black. I recovered it from a broken laptop power supply

Here: Circuit diagram and pcb layout pdf.



To program in circuit the ESP-12 module I used the following adapter scheme:


 I used this USB - serial adapter.

The FS101 software has been compiled using the Arduino environment for ESP8266 and the subsequent libraries:

- ESP8266_and_ESP32_Oled_Driver_for_SSD1306_display , https://github.com/squix78/esp8266-oled-ssd1306
- HX711 , https://github.com/aguegu/ardulibs/tree/master/hx711 ;
- OneButton , https://github.com/mathertel/OneButton ;
- eeprom , https://github.com/esp8266/Arduino/tree/master/libraries/EEPROM.

The current firmware ( FS101 version 1.0 )  does not activate the WIFI function of the ESP12 and the module is used as an economical micro-controller.

In order to configure the weight scale and modify some parameters I used a single button library user interface with 3 events: button pressed once, button pressed twice, timeout for unpressed button.  The parameters are saved in Flash (Eeprom). Among the parameters is selectable the density in grams per cm3 of the filament. It is used to calculate the estimation in meters of the filament assuming a diameter of 1.75mm.
The default calibration parameters can be modified into the ESP-12 module program by recompiling.

Hereafter a map of the user interface.



I used my 3D printer (Ender-3) to make the weight scale box, the cover and some spacers, see https://www.thingiverse.com/thing:3537459

The box has dimensions of 215 x 32 x 20 mm and is fixed to the top profile of the Ender-3 using 2 bolts of 25mm and one of 8 mm that will be screwed in captive data to the groove of the profile.
I have used bolts and M5 data, however this requires drilling the two M5 holes in the load cell with a 5 mm drill bit to allow the bolts to pass freely and thus tighten the load cell at the base and at the profile.


Two holes in the box allow the passage of the hex key and are also used to cool the electronic circuit and to pass with a small screwdriver to open the rear cover.


Alternatively, M4 bolts and nuts can be used; drilling of the load cell is not necessary.
Be careful to drill holes in the load cell. Do not damage the wiring, and use a column drill and vice to secure the load cell securely. CAUTION: Do not pierce the cell by holding it temporarily - you would be seriously injured!
The roll support bracket has two 5mm fixing holes 20mm apart, while the load cell has two M4 threaded holes 15mm apart.
I designed a small spacer that fits the 5mm holes and has two 4mm holes.
It is necessary to mark and cut the second 4 mm hole in the original metal bracket.

Here you need a column drill and a vice to fix the bracket firmly. CAUTION: do not pierce by holding the bracket temporarily: you would be seriously injured!

I populated the pcb with only the power supply module and I connected it temporarily to a 24V power supply (the module holds up to 28 volts input).
I then adjusted the trimmer to have an output voltage of 3.35 volts. I decided to desolder the resistive trimmer from the module and replace it with a fixed resistor that in my case is about 19.6 kOhm (parallel of 20 kOhm and 1 Mohm). In this way the voltage cannot be changed by mistake.


I soldered the other components on the printed circuit board. Be careful to install the spacer under the button, it serves to have the correct spacing towards the front.



Before mounting the OLED module it is necessary to configure the I2C interface by installing on the back of the OLED module the resistors R1, R4, R6, R7 = 4k7, R8 = 0 Ohm.



The FS101 pcb does not require any modification (fixing the modules when they do not exactly coincide in position may require tilting the connection pins a little and some adaptation).


I have some spare pcb, if some maker wants one pcb can send me an email (ik1xpv AT gmail.com) with the full destination address and after my email confirmation of availability, send a Paypal donation to my email for expenses incurred (I think > 4 Euro).





BBRF103-2 RC3 is here!

Radek Haša is a shortwave and airband listener living in Czech republic.
He decided to redesign the PCB layout and assembled a prototype of the BBRF103-2.
Thanks for allowing his project to be published.


While designing the PCB in Eagle 8.x format, he noticed and fixed some bugs in my layout.

- Referring to transformers T1,T2,T3. The Coilcraft WBC4-6TL type is better than the WBC4-1TL. The insertion loss is 0.65 dB instead of 1 dB. (WBC datasheet)
Note that terminals 4 and 6 of the primary winding are interchanged in the electric scheme and the SMD footprint used in the PCB. This does not affect performance and will be corrected in the future PCB version to match the original SMD footprint.

- The Q1,Q2,Q3,Q4 SMD footprint is corrected in RC3 PCB.

- C44 and C55 silkscreen locations are swapped in the BBRF103-2 original PCB. Footprint is corrected in RC3 PCB layout.

Prototype was tested on desktop PC equipped with Intel Pentium G4600 CPU and B150 chipset USB 3.0 hub controller. Hereafter some pictures of prototype under testing.





He made some test of temperature of the ADC and R820T2 in VHF mode.
“There are no heatsinks on ADC and R820T2. The temperature of the ADC reached 73 ° C while the R820T2 reached 60 ° C at 100MHz. Room temperature was 27 ° C.“

WARNING: notice that this description is a BETA test version without any warranty and is intended for non-commercial purposes.

Radek’s PCB design files can be downloaded here: http://www.steila.com/radek/BBRF103_2_RC3.zip
The archive contains:

Finally please notice that ExtIOsddc.dll ver 0.96 software does not yet control the antenna power via dll panel window and to enable VHF (R820T2) mode you must undefine _NO_TUNER_ in config.h and recompile.



email: ik1xpv AT gmail DOT com

Just another BBRF103 version

A new board to experiment with undersampling technique.

“..If we use the sampling frequency less than twice the maximum frequency component in the signal, then it is called undersampling. Undersampling is also known as band pass sampling, harmonic sampling or super-Nyquist sampling. Nyquist-Shannon Sampling theorem, which is the modified version of the Nyquist sampling theorem, says that the sampling frequency needs to be twice the signal bandwidth and not twice the maximum frequency component, in order to be able to reconstruct the original signal perfectly from the sampled version. If B is the signal bandwidth, then Fs > 2B is required where Fs is sampling frequency. The signal bandwidth can be from DC to B or from f1 to f2 where B = f2 – f1. The aliasing effect due to the undersampling technique can be used for our advantage. When a signal is sampled at a rate less than twice its maximum frequency, the aliased signal appears at Fs – Fin, where Fs is the sampling frequency and Fin in the input signal frequency. “ from Why Use Oversampling when Undersampling Can do the Job? - Texas Instruments.

In an example case looking at FM band we sample the input 98 MHz with Fs = 56MHz and the aliased component will appear at 14 MHz ( 56*2 – 98).
As we know in advance that the signal is aliased, we can recover the actual frequency by using the N*Fs – Fin relationship. The undersampling technique allows the ADC to behave like a mixer or a down converter in the receive chain. For a band-limited signal of 98 MHz with a 20-MHz signal bandwidth, the sampling rate (Fs) of 56 Msps, the aliased component referred to 2*Fs will appear between 4MHz to 24 MHz (20 ±10 MHz.
An analog band pass filter is required at ADC input to avoid interference from other Nyquist band.


Undersampling Case of 98MHz Signal with 20MHz Bandwidth.


I designed a new breadboard with some modification. The PCB is named BBRF103 ver 0.5.


BBRF103 ver 0.5 - block diagram.

The J1 input uses a band stop filter for the FM Band 88-108 MHz.
This input is planned for experimental use within 120-500 MHz frequency range. Some specific band pass filter and LNA will be externally added for 50MHz, 144MHz or 432MHz band.


The FM Band Stop Filter - LTspice simulation.

The J2 input has a band pass filter for the FM band to analyze the full 88-108 MHz band spectrum at once. This filter is quite simpler as the FM signals are very strong versus possible interference.


FM band filter response.

Finally J3 is the HF input. The filter components values are changed from first version of BBRF103.


HF low pass filter.

The connector J4 is an optional input for an external reference signal. A capacitor must be mounted to enable this signal.

J5 and J6 are two programmable clock output from the Si5351 generator. May be used to synchronize external tuner oscillator.

RF switch type
I like to test a bi-stable subminiature DIP relay type HFD2/005-M-L2-D to switch RF instead of active switches. 
The relay is a 5Volt dual coil latched one.  I shielded it using adhesive copper tape that will be soldered to the PCB ground plane.


Relays used. The left one with a copper tape shield added.

The board scheme and PCB layout is at link http://www.steila.com/test/BBRF103_5.pdf

24/04/2019 - here http://www.steila.com/test/BBRF103_5B.pdf annotated scheme circuit to keep relays off during power on.

I preview to receive the PCB within September and then to start testing.


24/04/2019 - My prototype shows that the PCB layout around the PCB is worse and noisier than the previous PCBs. A makeover is needed.


email: ik1xpv AT gmail DOT com




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